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Cultural coexistence: violence and persecution
The radicalization of mentalities, political and social changes and situations of crisis can turn peaceful coexistence into a situation marked by extreme violence. From the 14th century onwards the Jewish communities were often attacked, marginalized or accused of various crimes and acts of sacrilege.
Majorca, 1394 (Archive of the Kingdom of Majorca). The breakdown in relations between the communities and outbreaks of verbal, physical and legal conflicts increased steadily during the 14th century, by the end of which the marginalization of the Jewish population was highlighted by repressive orders such as having to sew a special sign onto their clothes whenever they went out into the street.
Rome, 1500. Arising from the numerous disputes and religious controversies that developed between Jews and Christians all over medieval Europe, various texts were published which attempted to refute the tenets of Judaism by referring back to its own sources. This volume, for example, which was published in Rome in 1500, contains a refutation of the thought of some of the leading medieval Jewish figures such as Maimonides (Moses Cordovensis) and Nahmanides (Moses Gerundensis).