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A difficult relationship. From coexistence to marginalization

The radicalization of mentalities, political and social changes and situations of crisis can turn peaceful coexistence into a situation marked by extreme violence. From the 14th century onwards the Jewish communities were often attacked, marginalized or accused of various crimes and acts of sacrilege.

Outstanding items

Document making it compulsory to wear a round disc

Majorca, 1394 (Archive of the Kingdom of Majorca). The breakdown in relations between the communities and outbreaks of verbal, physical and legal conflicts increased steadily during the 14th century. By the end of it, the marginalization of the Jewish population was highlighted by repressive orders such as having to sew a special sign onto their clothes whenever they went out into the street.


Liber de Confutatione Hebraicae Sectae

Rome, 1500. Arising from the numerous disputes and religious controversies that developed between Jews and Christians all over medieval Europe, various texts were published which attempted to refute the tenets of Judaism by referring back to its own sources. This volume, for example, which was published in Rome in 1500, contains a refutation of the thought of some of the leading medieval Jewish figures such as Maimonides (Moses Cordovensis) and Nahmanides (Moses Gerundensis).


Document of Expulsion

Municipal Record Book, 20th April 1492 (facsimile of the original in the Girona Municipal Archive). On 20th April 1492 the Magistrates of Girona were notified of the King's order that any Jewish inhabitant who was not prepared to convert to Christianity was required to leave the city by 31st July, never to return. This edict, duly copied into the City Council's Municipal Record Book, brought to an end over six centuries of shared history and fruitful coexistence.

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