Étienne-Jules Marey invents the photographic gun, with which he obtains a series of images of a bird in flight on a circular glass plate: chronophotograph on a fixed plate.
Étienne-Jules Marey invents chronophotography on moving film, first on paper and later on celluloid.
Louis Aimé Augustin Le Prince builds a device with sixteen lenses for taking views and the projection of moving photographic images.
Thomas Alva Edison defines 35mm film with four perforations on either side of the frame.
Reynaud patents the Optical Theatre.
Collodion aristotype, a print made by contact. George Wharton Simpson, Paul Eduard Liesegang and Johann Baptist Obernetter.
Platinotype. William Willis and Alfred Clements.
Letterpress halftone, a widely used photomechanical process.
Gelatin aristotype, a print made by contact. William Abney.
The manufacture of orthochromatic plates begins.
Gelatin DOP, gelatin silver bromide developing paper. Peter Mawdsley.
Cellulose nitrate film on a stiff plate. Made by John Carbutt.
Kodak is founded and produces its first camera, loaded with a 100-exposure roll of film, costing $25.
It begins in the 1890s >>
Paul Nipkow invents a mechanical device for the exploration and capturing of images, the "Nipkow Disc".
Emile Berliner presents the gramophone, which uses a flat disc for the recording of the sound.
English engineer Oberlin Smith publishes the basic principles for recording electrical signals on a magnetic support.
Thomas Alva Edison introduces an electric motor to his phonographs and incorporates wax cylinders (the previous ones were of paper covered in tinfoil).
Heinrich Rudolf Hertz proves by experiment the existence and behaviour of electromagnetic waves just as James Clerk Maxwell and Michael Faraday had previously predicted.
First known recording of a bird song, made with a phonograph by Ludwig Karl Koch.